An Introduction to Geomythography

Geomythography

The interpretation of prehistoric and later societies through a combination of oral tradition, place-names, landscape analysis and archaeology. The process is a means of finding new perspectives and interpretations to hopefully further the understanding of such societies.

The process of Geomythography is rooted in the awareness that the passing on of tradition in pre-literate societies is predicated on certain realities. In many cases, such as Scotland, communities have survived within the same environment over remarkable periods of time. This has created a rootedness, not just in terms of physical environment but in socio-psychological terms that have led to considerable depths of continuity between the generations. This can perhaps be understood as an ongoing cultural relationship with the physical environment which exists simultaneously at an individual and communal level. One way of understanding this is to see ‘ancestor worship’ not as something inherently religious but something much more akin to respect, respect for those who paved the way for contemporary society, physically – by handing on prepared ground with the knowledge of how to use it, much as understanding of how to read the weather was passed on – and significantly, in the field of human inter-relatedness with that environment. The respect for the ancestors in traditional societies is accompanied by a sense of responsibility towards coming generations who are expected to perpetuate the continuity of the community. In pre-literate societies the mode of transmission of such cultural values is oral tradition. This can be understood as not only referring to traditional stories but also specific data such as site-specific weather lore and place names. While, many place-names are essentially topographical. i.e descriptive of the landscape, others have mythological or ritual connotations. (see Appendix B)

We must also remember that humans are animals and that the rootedness of such communities is matched by the rootedness of individuals within such communities and the physical environment. This in turn created an attachment to the land that was essentially visceral rather than intellectual. What is known as Diaspora poetry and song underlines this cultural reality in many cultures.

In Building The Great Stone Circles of the North, Colin Richards makes the following point when writing about folklore associated with ancient monuments,

’objects become invested with meaning through the social interactions they are caught up in. These meanings change and are renegotiated through the life of an object…..those things are always in the process of becoming; in this sense we can say, monuments are always in the making through discourse.’ [2013, p292]

This is particularly relevant in those societies and locales where the population remain essentially localised over long periods of time as appears to have been the situation in most of Scotland pre the 18th century. People lived on the land inhabited by their ancestors. Within the clan system, which arose directly from earlier forms of tribal society, local beliefs may well have been handed down over truly remarkable lengths of time. It has been established in Australia that some of the traditional stories of the aboriginal population may well have originated over thirty thousand years ago1.The dates of flint scatter from Elsrickle at 12000 BCE suggest the possibility that some of the localise material in Scottish folklore tradition may well have considerable antiquity. Some underlying ideas, such as the apparent understanding of existence being in some way based in an understanding of feminine fertility are likely even older, perhaps having already been par of culture when humans first arrived here. What is of considerable import is that as Richards points out ‘the monuments are in the making” and effectively have been for a long time, This can only have helped to reinforce important locales within contemporary culture time and again. So places associated with supernatural figures like the Paps – breast-shaped hills (infra) – have become the focus of a range of sociological and communal constructs and as they are still prominent in the landscape their everyday cultural relevance continued till very recently, and even, arguably, the present day. Appendix A shows the variety of constructs that can be, and have been associated with some of these sites, going far beyond the out-dated notion that everything on the top of a hill must have been a military structure.

There is also a level of practicality that can be discerned in much of what is considered to be mythological thinking. How was the land created? Where did humans come from? Who controls the weather? These are fundamental questions for all human societies and in much early mythological construct we can see that the explanations of such deep questions are based on a practical approach to the environment and how to survive in it. It is a fundamental tenet of the geomythographic approach that we retain an awareness of both practicality and continuity in dealing with early human society. It is also of considerable importance to note that so many supernatural figures, mythological, legendary and religious are clearly derived from human prototypes

In The Pagan Symbols of the Picts (2013 Luath Press, Edinburgh passim) I presented an interpretation of the symbols based on the concept of an underlying Weltanschaung based round the idea that life itself was driven by a force that was essentially feminine. This idea was specifically based round interpretation of material relating to those sites known in Scotland as Paps. These breast shaped hills, perhaps deliberately echoed in localised ritual mounds, are the locales of what I have referred to as ‘clusters”(see Appendices A and B) These clusters include a considerable range of different examples of human interaction with these specific locales and include the breast shapes themselves – perhaps perceived of as deliberately shaped by the Goddess figure associated with landscape creation; the stories of powerful female (and sometimes male) figures associated with the locales; ancient monuments suggestive of ritualised behaviour; place-names referring to mythological and legendary figures and ritual behaviour; oral traditions referring to weather patterns linked to the role of the powerful female figures as weather-workers.

What is clear is that these Pap sites conform to the ideas suggested by Bradley in The Archaeology of the Natural Places (2000 Routledge N.Y.) where he suggests that significant locales stand out from the landscape because of ‘their striking topography” (p6). It has also become clear (see Carlin Maggie below) is that some sites seem to have been the foci of a further level of interaction where specific viewpoints of the site bring extra levels of interpretation. Just as the Paps themselves were the focus of belief through stories of the powerful supernatural beings associated with them, so it seems they had extra layers of meaning when seen from specific locales. The extent of how much this interfaces with solar and lunar alignments – as appears to be the case with the Carlin Maggie site – is something that merits further investigation.

The process arose initially from analysing traditional oral material associated with specific sites of antiquity, often ancient monuments 2. Over time a pattern emerged where it was clear that specific shapes (initially Paps) were repeatedly associated with certain supernatural figures. Most dramatically these were the Cailleach in Gaelic-speaking areas and the Carlin in Scots-speaking areas which I have written about extensively elsewhere. The activities of these figures in landscape-shaping, weather working and their association with significant geophysical realities and events in the landscape e.g. Ben Nevis, the Corryvreckan Whirlpool, North Berwick Law etc., illustrates the depths of their rootedness in communal belief. What became apparent was that certain sites and locales had become not just significant in themselves but had attracted cultural aggregations that speak of their importance. The repeated association of mountain top sites with supernatural females is particularly obvious. It is also apparent that many such places were the sites of rituals. Echoes of such ritual behaviour can be seen in place names like Lomond – deriving from the P-Celtic llumon a beacon or chimney 3 and Craigshannoch on Bennachie deriving from the Scots shannack, Halloween fires 4 .Similarly there are a number of Bel names across the country which appear to refer to the activities associated with Beltain. Through understanding that such sites and locales were the foci of ritual and belief it became clear that further interpretation is possible. I have discussed this elsewhere but am now in the position of giving this process of inter-disciplinary interpretation itself the name of Geomythography and as an illustration of how the process can be productive I include here recent discoveries made in the physical landscape of Scotland.

 

Uamh nan Deargan, Scarba

I have been vising the island of Scarba for several years with a study group that focuses on the Corryvreckan and its role in mythology, tradition and literature. The name Uamh nan Deargan translates as Cave of the little Red One and I visited it the first time in 2009 because in the tale of Mac Iain Direach in Campbell’s Popular Tales of the West Highlands (1994 reprint) V2 p93 collected circa 1860, the action, while supposedly set on Jura, actually starts at Creagan nan Deargan, the rock of the little red one, which is on Scarba. This anomaly intrigued me and consulting the OS map (Pathfinder No 365) I noticed the cave there. The tale is full of interesting mythological material, some of it linked directly to the Paps of Jura, which are themselves of some significance in pre-Christian thought. The story also includes references to the Seven Big Women of Jura who in some respects conform to the model of Nine Maidens. Coming toward Baigh (bay) nan Deargan you walk through a natural stone arch in the outcrop known as Creagan nan Deargan and are immediately below the entrance to a cave.

Stone arch looking north east

Cave

The cave is not far from the opening of the Gulf of Corryvreckan, between Scarba and Jura, which contains the world’s third biggest whirlpool and is associated with the Cailleach, a supernatural female figure, the traditions regarding whom suggest she was originally a goddess figure. A major fault line which cuts across the entire island runs through the roof of the cave and its name Uamh nan Deargan, the Cave of the Little Red One, may be related to the fact that the northern side of the cave is composed of red-streaked rock. The fact that the floor of the cave is flat and smooth is clear indication of human activity here, and initial investigation suggests at least as far back as the Neolithic. The evidence of human occupation is confirmed by scorch marks from a long term hearth fire on the northern wall.

Skull

Within the cave itself is a naturally-occurring outcrop of stone closely resembling an upside down human skull. It is approximately the right size for a new-born baby and is in the cleft of rock that forms the cave itself. The cave’s name. the upside down skull shape and the red-streaked rock combined. lead to the speculative possibility of this having been some sort of birthing site. It’s proximity to the Corryvreckan and its association with a goddess figure perhaps reinforce this, especially as the Cailleach in some surviving tales is clearly presented as a dual figure whose other half is Bride, the Goddess of Summer and a striking symbol of fertility and rebirth. Bradley’s ideas regarding the archaeology of natural places would suggest this is a site that would have evoked strong reactions in the early occupants.

Lochnagar

In the summer of 2011 I went to Lochnagar with my son Roderick. The intention was to look at Meikle Pap. The name Lochnagar was given to the mountain in the 19th century supposedly to avoid embarrassing Queen Victoria (for whom Prince Albert purchased the Balmoral estate in 1852) by using its earlier name Beann na Ciochan, the hill of the paps or breasts, there being Little Pap south of Meikle Pap. This is of course similar to the name of Bennachie, which is likewise named for its prominent nipple shaped peak nowadays known as Mither Tap, but earlier as Mither Pap. This underlines the association with the Cailleach/Carlin the landscape-shaping and weather-working supernatural female of both Gaelic and Scots tradition. She is commemorated on the Lochnagar massif by the place-names Caisteal na Caillich – another lesser peak of the massif – and Allt na Cailleach the stream which runs northwards along Glen Muick. The name Glen Muick may also have some significance as I have pointed out in The Pagan Symbols of the Picts (p60ff) that there were strong traditional associations between early Goddess figures and porcine animals in different societies. Another nearby place name is Coire na Ciche – the Corrie of the Pap and further north on the massif above the river Don there is Creag nam Ban, The Rock of the Women which may denote a site of fertility rituals, as are associated with similar named places elsewhere.

Sadly there are no extant tales regarding the Cailleach relating to Lochnagar but this may well be due to the fact that the surrounding glens were cleared of their indigenous populations to make way for the shooting estates set up in the 19th century. However on reaching the top of Meikle Pap I was struck by the odd shapes of the rocks which. like Carlin Maggie and other significant hill-top sites, are composed of dolorite. Dolorite takes on smooth and fascinating shapes over time, very often appearing to be taking on aspects of the human form (Fig1). On the topmost rock of the summit there are two holes which look like eyes.(Fig2) Such holes were thought in previous times to have happened naturally but this seems unlikely. It may also be relevant that in many cultures the eye is seen as a specific symbol of goddess figures 5. Whether there is any link between the concept of Lochnagar as sacred site and the annual Midsummer Solstice pilgrimage is unclear and I can find no references to the event before the 20th century. At the least these ‘eyes’ present what Bradley refers to as ‘striking topography’ though if they are man-made (or enhanced) their location on the summit of Meikle Pap is remarkable.

Cnoc Brannan

In the summer of 2013 I was on the summit of Ben Ledi, part of the summit of which is called Cnoc a’ Cailleach and where there are reports of Beltane fire ceremonies as late as the 19th century. I noticed what appeared to be an unusually regular-shaped hill to the east in Glenartney. Such symmetry hints at human involvement and on consulting the map I discovered this was Cnoc Brannan. Now Brannan is potentially a variant of Brendan or Bran, both of which names have a significance in early Christian and pre-Christian materials from Scotland, Ireland and Wales. The Welsh connection to Bran is particularly interesting because of the shared linguistic/cultural heritage of the Welsh and Southern Scottish P-Celtic speaking tribes (and probably Pictish tribes to the north) of the 1st Millennium. It is possible that the Q-Celtic derived Brandan variants are rooted, like so much early Christian material from these islands, in earlier constructs. I then researched the area further finding that the stream to the west of Cnoc Brannan was Allt na Caillich and that there had been a couple of cup-marked rocks found in the area. I then went to Glenartney and walked up the burn. I found the following site just a couple of hundred metres from the bridge. It appears to be an unrecorded disturbed chambered cairn.

It was through the combination of landscape reading, place name analysis and an awareness of the depths of tradition associated with this particular name that I noticed the Allt na Caillich and by following that up made the discovery of the unrecorded chambered cairn. This is a precise example of how the process I refer to as geomythography can be of use in archaeology.

Carlin Maggie

On the side of Bishop Hill overlooking Loch Leven in Fife there is a dolorite stack or pillar called Carlin Maggie. A local tale recounts how Maggie was the leader of the witches who regularly gathered in the Lomond Hills and she became so sure of her own powers that she ended up fighting the Devil himself. Now as in all such tales there could only be one conclusion and it is said that Maggie, getting the worst of the struggle, ran off and was turned into this stone pillar by a blast from Auld Hornie. Now the Lomond Hills are known as the Paps of Fife and like other similar places are clearly associated with pre-Christian ritual belief and in all likelihood ritual activities (above and Appendix A). The Carlin in Scots tradition is a match for the Cailleach in Gaelic tradition and there is sufficient evidence to suggest that surviving folklore attached to them denotes them having been goddess figures in pre-Christian times6 . In 2014 I decided to visit the stack, which is on a very steep part of Bishop Hill in an area that has been extensively scarred by quarrying. All photographs I had seen of Carlin Maggie to that point had been taken from the south and showed a somewhat phallic pillar of rock. I approached from the south west and headed north past the stack, it was then I noticed something quite remarkable about this particular dolorite pillar. Viewed rom the west it has a shape that is strikingly redolent of the well known ”Venus” figures from Malta and elsewhere. This further underlines the potential association with an early goddess figure here and further research has shown there is more to be investigated in the landscape of the Lomond Hills. Loch Leven and the Ochil Hills to the west..

On a subsequent visit to a potential ‘natural site’ a few mile s east in the Ochil Hills 7 further aspects of the Carlin Maggie site were noticed and these will figure in the next stage in the development of the Geomythograpical approach will be an in-depth analysis of the Central Fife and Ballachulish areas.

Appendix A Cluster sites

Bennachie

Initially Beinn a Cioch, the hill of the nipple or pap.

Craigshannoch, Rock of the Samhain Fire

Maiden Stane

Maiden Causeway

Mither Tap

Stone circles at Chapel of Garioch, Chapel o Sink, East Aquhorthies and Hatton of Ardoyne.

Standing stones at Hatton of Ardoyne, Monymusk and Tombeg

Symbol Stones at Logie

Whitecross

Whitewell

Lochnagar

initially Beinn a Ciochan, the Hill or Mountain of the Breasts

Alltcailleach Forest

Caisteal na Caillich

Carn an t-Sagairt Beg and Mor. Cairns of the Priest

Cnapan Nathraichean, The Knoll of the Adders (Bride or Druidic reference?)

Coire na Ciche, Corryof the Nipple or Pap

Glen and Loch Muick, from Muc, a pig or swine

Little Pap

Meikle Pap

White Mounth

Paps of Fife

East and West Lomond Hill. Acc CPNS Lomond means beacon

Maiden Bower – geophysical feature used in fertility rite

Maiden Castle – not a fortification

The Carlin and her daughter – geophysical feature: Carlin is Scots for Cailleach

Devil’s Burdens – geophysical feature

Early church site at nearby Orwell

Earthwork in Glen Vale

Early Christian Symbol Stone with fish and cross on W. Lomond Hill

Fort on East Lomond Hill

Scotlandwell and its priory

White Craigs

Paps of Jura

Jura is originally Norse and means Deer Isle

The Paps are three mountains one of which is Beinn Shantaidh, the Holy Mountain.

One of the others Beinn an Oir, has Sgriobh na Cailich where a hag is said to have slid down the side of the mountain.

This location is also associated with the Seven Big Women of Jura, who in tradition had the Glaibh Soluis, the Sword of Light. They may have originally been 9 in number (see McHardy 2003).

Jura is probably the site of the Columban Hinba.

The Corryvreckan at the north end of the island has many Goddess associations and traditions and is one of the world’s seven significant whirlpools. Its spiral shapes, thrown into the Atlantic Tide are the Breath of the Goddess under the Waves and may have inspired northern European use of the spiral motif.

On the east of the island at Small Isles Bay there are Rubha (point) na Caillich and Rubha Bhride and Eilean Bhride.

Paps of Lothian

Used to describe North Berwick Law and Arthur’s Seat

North Berwick Law is a major landmark and linked to 17th century witch activity.

Arthur’s Seat has wells, hill-forts (?), a chapel and an ancient fertility site, the Sliddery Stanes..

Appendix B Cluster elements

Significant elements in locating potential Goddess sites. It is suggested the significance of these elements increases with frequency and proximity.

Wells – particular noteworthy dedications are St.s Brendan, and Bride, Ninewells but wells are significant in themselves.

Antiquities – most hilltop sites are given as forts but their significance as Beltane/Samhain fire sites may be more significant; likewise earthworks of various kinds and cairns can be of significance, particularly if associated with specific names –e.g. Shennach, a variant on Shannach, the Scots for Halloween. Stone circles are always a sign of a sacred site whereas without other supporting evidence it is impossible to be so definite about single standing stones.

Early church sites – particularly when on mounds – virtually proof of a previous site of sanctity.

Dens – many dens are associated with early saints, witches, supposed serpent worship. Their continuance as places of local activity can be construed as an example of social continuity.

Landmarks – instances like figures in the natural landscape or particular shaped hills reminiscent of the female body often have a placename element referring to this significance – or have associated ideas/tales in local history and folklore.

Islands – in both lochs and sea islands, probably because of being surrounded by water – water is the stuff of life and this can be seen as the virtual blood of the Goddess, underlining the importance of wells.

 

Placename elements.

White/Fin – white is traditionally seen as the colour of sanctity.

Nevay/Navay/Navie – as a separate word or word ending this refers back to nemeton – a sacred grove. Can be difficult to spot as in Slocknavata in Galloway.

Bride/Bridget /Breedie – can be first or last element. A Mother Goddess, symbol of fruitfulness and regeneration, specifically associated with Summer and independently existing in England, Ireland and Scotland.

Cailleach/Cally –in many forms.

Ban – particularly as in nam ban , of women.

Ciochnipple.

Dun – generally assumed to mean fort but see above.

Law – often distintively-shaped and standing alone, many laws have folklore associations or distinctive names, suggesting they have a meaning beyond “hill”.

Mambreast

Nathrach – meaning the adder.

Pap – there are quite a few of these and like e.g Mither Tap on Bennachie often have “colusters” around.

Seat/Suidhe – again these names tend to have specific significance.

Witch/Witches – significant if associated with other elements.

White in placenames occurs frequently near ancient sacred sites throughout the UK

Note. At Bennachie there is the name Bruntwood Tap and at the back of Fannyhill near Muckhart we have Burnt Wood. This could be a reference to the burning of ceremonial fires at Samhain and Beltane as Lomond surely is.

Notes

On first investigation Cnoc Brannan itself showed little of significance other than a stone scatter on its western slope which may bear further investigation.

Appendix A

Bennachie

Initially Beinn a Cioch, the hill of the nipple or pap.

Craigshannoch, Rock of the Samhain Fire

Maiden Stane

Maiden Causeway

Mither Tap

Stone circles at Chapel of Garioch, Chapel o Sink, East Aquhorthies and Hatton of Ardoyne.

Standing stones at Hatton of Ardoyne, Monymusk and Tombeg

Symbol Stones at Logie

Whitecross

Whitewell

Lochnagar

initially Beinn a Ciochan, the Hill or Mountain of the Breasts

Alltcailleach Forest

Caisteal na Caillich

Carn an t-Sagairt Beg and Mor. Cairns of the Priest

Cnapan Nathraichean, The Knoll of the Adders (Bride or Druidic reference?)

Coire na Ciche, Corryof the Nipple or Pap

Glen and Loch Muick, from Muc, a pig or swine

Little Pap

Meikle Pap

White Mounth

Paps of Fife

East and West Lomond Hill. Acc CPNS Lomond means beacon

Maiden Bower – geophysical feature used in fertility rite

Maiden Castle – not a fortification

The Carlin and her daughter – geophysical feature: Carlin is Scots for Cailleach

Devil’s Burdens – geophysical feature

Early church site at nearby Orwell

Earthwork in Glen Vale

Early Christian Symbol Stone with fish and cross on W. Lomond Hill

Fort on East Lomond Hill

Scotlandwell and its priory

White Craigs

Paps of Jura

Jura is originally Norse and means Deer Isle

The Paps are three mountains one of which is Beinn Shantaidh, the Holy Mountain.

One of the others Beinn an Oir, has Sgriobh na Cailich where a hag is said to have slid down the side of the mountain.

This location is also associated with the Seven Big Women of Jura, who in tradition had the Glaibh Soluis, the Sword of Light. They may have originally been 9 in number (see McHardy 2003).

Jura is probably the site of the Columban Hinba.

The Corryvreckan at the north end of the island has many Goddess associations and traditions and is one of the world’s seven significant whirlpools. Its spiral shapes, thrown into the Atlantic Tide are the Breath of the Goddess under the Waves and may have inspired northern European use of the spiral motif.

On the east of the island at Small Isles Bay there are Rubha (point) na Caillich and Rubha Bhride and Eilean Bhride.

Paps of Lothian

Used to describe North Berwick Law and Arthur’s Seat

North Berwick Law is a major landmark and linked to 17th century witch activity.

Arthur’s Seat has wells, hill-forts (?), a chapel and an ancient fertility site, the Sliddery Stanes..

Appendix B Clusters

Significant elements in locating potential Goddess sites. It is suggested the significance of these elements increases with frequency and proximity.

Wells – particular noteworthy dedications are St.s Brendan, and Bride, Ninewells but wells are significant in themselves.

Antiquities – most hilltop sites are given as forts but their significance as Beltane/Samhain fire sites may be more significant; likewise earthworks of various kinds and cairns can be of significance, particularly if associated with specific names –e.g. Shennach, a variant on Shannach, the Scots for Halloween. Stone circles are always a sign of a sacred site whereas without other supporting evidence it is impossible to be so definite about single standing stones.

Early church sites – particularly when on mounds – virtually proof of a previous site of sanctity.

Dens – many dens are associated with early saints, witches, supposed serpent worship. Their continuance as places of local activity can be construed as an example of social continuity.

Landmarks – instances like figures in the natural landscape or particular shaped hills reminiscent of the female body often have a placename element referring to this significance – or have associated ideas/tales in local history and folklore.

Islands – in both lochs and sea islands, probably because of being surrounded by water – water is the stuff of life and this can be seen as the virtual blood of the Goddess, underlining the importance of wells.

 

Placename elements.

White/Fin – white is traditionally seen as the colour of sanctity.

Nevay/Navay/Navie – as a separate word or word ending this refers back to nemeton – a sacred grove. Can be difficult to spot as in Slocknavata in Galloway.

Bride/Bridget /Breedie – can be first or last element. A Mother Goddess, symbol of fruitfulness and regeneration, specifically associated with Summer and independently existing in England, Ireland and Scotland.

Cailleach/Cally –in many forms.

Ban – particularly as in nam ban , of women.

Ciochnipple.

Dun – generally assumed to mean fort but see above.

Law – often distintively-shaped and standing alone, many laws have folklore associations or distinctive names, suggesting they have a meaning beyond “hill”.

Mambreast

Nathrach – meaning the adder.

Pap – there are quite a few of these and like e.g Mither Tap on Bennachie often have “colusters” around.

Seat/Suidhe – again these names tend to have specific significance.

Witch/Witches – significant if associated with other elements.

White in placenames occurs frequently near ancient sacred sites throughout the UK

Note. At Bennachie there is the name Bruntwood Tap and at the back of Fannyhill near Muckhart we have Burnt Wood. This could be a reference to the burning of ceremonial fires at Samhain and Beltane as Lomond surely is.

Notes.

  1. Isaacs, J 1980 40,000 Years of Australian Dreaming Lansdowne Press Willoughby NSW
  2. McHardy, S.A. 2003 The Quest for the Nine Maidens; 2005 On the Trail of Scotland’s myths and legends, Chapter2 ; 2012 The Pagan Symbols of the Picts, Chapter 7. Luath Press Edinburgh
  3. Watson, W.J 1986 (repr) The Celtic Placenames of Scotland Birlinn Edinburgh p 212
  4. The Concise Scots Dictionary 1985 Aberdeen University Press p 605
  5. Crawford,O.G.S. 1958 The Eye Goddess, MacMillan NY
  6. The Pagan Symbols of the Picts passim
  7. This site on Dochrie Hill is above Meikle Seggie, the starting point for so much of Ricky De Marco’s involvement with landscape art, which had a seminal effect on me in the 1960s.

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